Cnoty i niecnoty w wierszowanych tekstach E. Drużbackiej : problem wartościowań
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citation: Annales Academiae Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. 6, Studia Linguistica 1 (2002), s. -347
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The article discusses the problem of evaluation in the literary text. Linguistic indicators of this evaluation comprise lexis, semantics, pragmatics and metaphors. The values are organised in such a way that the GOOD includes virtues and the BAD - vices. Virtues (such as łaskawość, miłosierdzie, pobożność, pokora, skromność, ludzkość, powaga, hojność, etc.) similarly to vices (such as oszustwo, szłabierstwo, chytrość, złośliwość, pyszność, zazdrość, plotkarstwo, etc.) are linked in chains and verbalised descriptively or metaphorically by E. Drużbacka. Each of the evaluated notions is described according to the pattern: a. Semantic classification, b. Textual exemplification, and c. Language indicators. The linguistic and stylistic analysis of evaluation present in E. Drużbacka’s texts reveals: 1. Metaphoric evaluation through common metaphors of: ziemia, droga, robak and cultural ones via Roman mythology and biblical ones via Old and New Testament; 2. Phraseological evaluation by means of common expressions of the proverbial type and performative use of proverbs; 3. Stylistic evaluation by means of synonymous, antithetical and synthetic parallelism; 4. Negative evaluation by means of common vocabulary and expressiveness; 5. Positive evaluation by means of biblical and mythological vocabulary and 6. Cultural-folk evaluation in contrast to enlightenment displayed by the motif of upiór (ghost). Evaluation in rhymed texts consists in poetic modifications of established collocations in a given language. In E. Drużbacka’s texts those modifications primarily concern values “opening up” onto other values and the so-called “reversal of evaluation” within the scope of cultural metaphors and ephraseological expressions considered as canonical.