W stronę filozoficznego maksymalizmu. O filozofii Wincentego Lutosławskiego
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citation: Annales Academiae Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. 53, Studia Philosophica 4 (2008), s. -133
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In the article the crucial elements of Wincenty Lutoslawski’s philosophy are explicated: spiritualism, eleutherism, pluralism, and messianism. Lutosławski wished to incorporate his philosophical maximalism into the Platonic tradition, interpreted also in the spirit of neoKantism and spiritualism. The author of the article points out clear relations between philosophy and politics, distinguished by Lutosławski, and, also emphasised by the philosopher, biological determinants existing in the foundation of eveiy philosophy, even one that declares impartiality, objectivism, cognitive autonomy, etc. By assigning a subservient role to philosophy, Lutosławski ascribed to his messianism a meaning defined both by programmes of philosophy of action and national philosophy, and by cognitive contemplation, mystical and gnostic traditions, yet significantly different from the message of romantic messianism and its motto - “Poland - Christ of the nations”. It is remarked that the opinion emphasised by Lutosławski, that every human being has an inherent right to freedom and to a conscious choice of national “dwelling place”, harmonizes with the modem discussion of “national self- identification” or “national identity”. This concept, questioning - among others - the idea of “ethnic awakening”, emphasises that a nation as a spiritual and organic, personal community does not collide with the individualization processes of a person, with the freedom of an individual, and that an individual’s choice of the nation is not a “conclusive” fact; this places Lutosławski in the avant-garde of the modem research into nationality. It is an idea that separates itself, on one hand, from the nationalistic ideas of “national egoism”, and from liberal-democratic projects or materialistic collectivism programmes on the other. Lutosławskie worldview was supposed to be - in the intention of the author of The Mission of the Polish Nation (Posłannictwo Narodu Polskiego) - the “third way” (beside the proposals of national democrats and socialists) that would lead Poland to a historical self- identification in the world, apolitical and systemic self-determination. It was supposed to be a way compatible with both the ancient Greek system of values and the universalism and personalism of Christianity.