Krakowianie : szkice do portretu zbiorowego w dobie industrialnej transformacji : 1890-1939
Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Kraków
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The subject of this essay deals with the extracted issues of Cracovian inhabitants’ social transformation from the estate and gnild relations to the industrial society, equal for law and property, as also differentiated according to modern standards. It was proved that this transformation took place between 1890-1939 and the dynamie inerease of human population was the first sign of the mentioned process. In those times the city population inereased 3,7 times so to less extent than population in cities of higher level of industrial growth such as Łódź, Warszawa. But the coefficient of growth was the same addicted to immigration. The inflow of people in average doses yearly was conductive to their adaptation to new environment both social and economic characteristic to Cracovian mentality. The birth ratę played less signiflcant role and it was created by average ratę of births and deaths. In respect of nationality and religion the population of Cracow was divided into two groups: Catholic Polish and Jewish of Old Order. In spite of the fact that Cracow for a long time was exposed to the influence of Austrian Monarchy there were no signs of German traces in this region. The inerease of city space in the first decade of XX century as the result of annexing the peasant territories situated near by caused the relative decrease of Jewish inhabitants’ proportion about 10%. Cracovian Jews as opposed to Cracovian Catholics however reached higher proportions of births while lower proportions of deaths. But their growth of population was strongly addicted to immigration. These two groups were also differentiated according to their social and professional status. The Jews traditionally worked as merchants whereas Catholics mainly worked in industry, farming and in administration. First mainly worked on their own whereas Catholics possessed workers. The transformation described above was conductive to cease the isolation of Jewish inhabitants although their individuality to some extent did not decrease. We pay attention to average materiał standards of Cracovian inhabitants that were accompanied neither by luxury, nor by poverty. It is proved by limited housing aspirations and simple, rather peasant way of eating. The inhabitants of encountered in cities palaces and magnate residences lived their own lives but their did not demonstrate their materiał status and did not prove to be better than others. People associated with traditional parts of Cracovian life such as culture, science, education and also administration maintained themselves from government subsidiaries that promoted places of work quite rare in those times. Lots of intellectuals had quite Iow salaries and as the greatest consumers of culture goods did not create the good market for artists. The industrial, banking and marketing Capital were also limited to medium and smali sizes and as the result there were also not too many people belonging to middle class. In comparison to Łódź and Warsaw Cracow did not know the residences of industrial magnates. The health level of all social groups was classified as rather Iow mainly because of bad way of feeding where the diet was based on high calorie content and indigestible animal grease and also the fact that fruit and vegetables were eaten rarely. Cracow was not prone to radical political views and trends, people instead adored the Christian and Social Democratic trends. They were characterized by highly developed social identity that impeded the influence of outside authorities. The Polish and foreign opinions about Cracow and its inhabitants in spite of strong influence of modern, capitalistic reality still underlined the domination of past. Some people considered Cracow to be Polish Athens, some others named Cracow Polish Romę (not because the fact that Cracovians are very religious, but acoording to many churches encountered in both cities of strong monumental value). Cracow was also famous for conservative way of thinking as the long lasting political and ideological trend of its inhabitants.